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Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research
Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA
ISSN: 0718-5820
EISSN: 0718-5839
Vol. 68, No. 3, 2008, pp. 238-247
Bioline Code: cj08023
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 68, No. 3, 2008, pp. 238-247

 en Inhibition Of Yellow Nutsedge ( Cyperus esculentus check for this species in other resources L.) And Bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon check for this species in other resources (l.) Pers) By A mulch Derived From Rye ( Secale cereale check for this species in other resources L.) In Grapevines
Ormeño-Núñez, Juan; Pino-Rojas, Gerardo & Garfe-Vergara, Farouk

Abstract

Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005) were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge ( Cyperus esculentus check for this species in other resources L.) and bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon check for this species in other resources (L.) Pers.), growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye ( Secale cereale check for this species in other resources L.) cover crop established between grapevine ( Vitis vinifera check for this species in other resources L.) rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless) and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row) + mechanical (between rows) control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December), was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.

Keywords
mulch, cover crop, rye, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus esculentus, grapevines.

 
 es Inhibición del crecimiento de chufa ( Cyperus esculentus check for this species in other resources L.) y pasto bermuda ( Cynodon dactylon check for this species in other resources (L.) Pers.) con mulch vegetal proveniente de centeno ( Secale cereale check for this species in other resources L.)
Ormeño-Núñez, Juan; Pino-Rojas, Gerardo & Garfe-Vergara, Farouk

Resumen

En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005) se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa ( Cyperus esculentus check for this species in other resources L.) y pasto bermuda ( Cynodon dactylon check for this species in other resources (L.) Pers.) de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L.) establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides ( Vitis vinifera check for this species in other resources L.) en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless) y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Las siegas sucesivas del centeno formaron un mulch vegetal denso y duradero sobre las hileras de vides. El mulch orgánico fue un 81 y 82% más efectivo para controlar chufa y pasto bermuda, respectivamente, que el control químico (sobre la hilera) + mecánico (entre las hileras). Dos aplicaciones de glifosato (octubre/diciembre) al 2% para chufa y 1% para pasto bermuda no fueron suficientes para controlar efectivamente las dos malezas. El grado de control del total de malezas fue 67,3 y 43,0% más efectivo con el mulch vegetal que con los tratamientos químicos en Los Andes y Santiago, respectivamente. El alto control ejercido por el mulch de centeno se debió a que el crecimiento de los nuevos brotes de chufa y pasto bermuda fueron particularmente susceptibles al sombreamiento del mulch, formado antes de su emergencia primaveral y que permaneció hasta inicios del otoño, y a que la siega del centeno maximizó los efectos alelopáticos de esta variedad local de centeno. Se sugiere utilizar este tipo de manejo de las cubiertas vegetales y mulch para el control efectivo de malezas en otros frutales caducifolios tanto en huertos de agricultura convencional como orgánicos.

Palabras-clave
mulch, cubierta vegetal, centeno, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus esculentus, vides.

 
© Copyright 2008 - Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA (Chile).
Alternative site location: http://www.inia.cl

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