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Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research
Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA
ISSN: 0718-5820
EISSN: 0718-5839
Vol. 68, No. 4, 2008, pp. 317-327
Bioline Code: cj08033
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 68, No. 4, 2008, pp. 317-327

 en Comparison and characterization of garlic ( Allium sativum check for this species in other resources l.) Bulbs extracts and their effect on mortality and repellency of Tetranychus urticae check for this species in other resources koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Hincapié, Carlos Augusto Ll.; López, Gloria Eugenia P. & Torres, Ricardo Ch.

Abstract

Tetranychus urticae check for this species in other resources Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic ( Allium sativum check for this species in other resources L.) bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC), ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris check for this species in other resources L.) in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50) were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively). Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%), diallyl disulfide (10.88%) and diallyl trisulfide (10.4%) as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.

Keywords
two-spotted spider mite, plant extracts, miticidal effect, Liliaceae.

 
 es Comparación y caracterización de extractos de bulbos de ajo ( Allium sativum check for this species in other resources L.) y su efecto en la mortalidad y repelencia de Tetranychus urticae check for this species in other resources Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).
Hincapié, Carlos Augusto Ll.; López, Gloria Eugenia P. & Torres, Ricardo Ch.

Resumen

Tetranychus urticae check for this species in other resources Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo ( Allium sativum check for this species in other resources L.) a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se obtuvieron usando como solventes CO2 en condiciones supercríticas (CSC), etanol y éter de petróleo usando el método soxhlet y maceración y agua usando maceración. La técnica de fluidos supercríticos permite obtener extractos a temperaturas bajas usando altas presiones, evitando la degradación de los compuestos y permitiendo su separación del solvente al exponerlo a temperatura ambiente. El ácaro fue criado en laboratorio sobre plantas de fríjol ( Phaseolus vulgaris check for this species in other resources L.)en el Campus Laureles de la Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. La mortalidad fue evaluada colocando 10 mites en un disco de hoja de P. vulgaris de 3 cm de diámetro previamente sumergido en el extracto. Las concentraciones letales medias (CL50) más bajas se obtuvieron con el método CSC (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 a las 24, 48 y 72 h respectivamente). Los extractos se caracterizaron usando cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC/MS), obteniendo en el extracto CSC principalmente vinillditiínas (63,11%), dialil disulfuro (10,88%) y di-2-propenil trisulfuro (10,4%). Se concluyó que la extracción con fluidos supercríticos permite obtener, a partir de bulbos de ajo, extractos con mayor concentración de compuestos biológicamente activos contra T. urticae, comparada con las otras técnicas usadas en este estudio.

Palabras-clave
arañita roja bimaculada, extractos de plantas, efecto acaricida, Liliaceae.

 
© Copyright 2008 - Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA (Chile).
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