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Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research
Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA
ISSN: 0718-5820
EISSN: 0718-5839
Vol. 69, No. 1, 2009, pp. 38-45
Bioline Code: cj09005
Full paper language: Spanish
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 69, No. 1, 2009, pp. 38-45

 en Physical And Chemical Characterization of Melia azedarach check for this species in other resources L. Fruit and Leaf for Use as Botanical Insecticide
Italo, Chiffelle G.; Amanda, Huerta F. & Diego, Lizana R.

Abstract

A study was undertaken of the physical and chemical characteristics and insecticide properties of melia (Melia azedarach L.) (Meliaceae) fruit and leaves; melia has been introduced in Chile for ornamental purposes. The physical and chemical properties were evaluated in two stages of fruit and leaf maturity, i.e., green /mature, and mature/juvenile, respectively. Laboratory bioassays were carried out on Drosophila melanogaster check for this species in other resources Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as an insect model. The diameter of M. azedarach fruit was in the lower limit in relation to other studies. The flour obtained from green fruit had an average dry weight inferior to that of mature fruit. The average dry leaf weights were similar in both juvenile and mature states. The green fruits had 50% initial humidity, similar to juvenile (60%) and mature (57%) leaves, but greater than the mature fruits (44%). The chemical analysis of the fruit maturity stages determined a slight increase in crude fiber content as maturity increased. There was a decrease in the lipid content of leaves close to 60% at maturity. Furthermore, an analysis of polyphenols was made using HPLC-DAD (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector), and 14 compounds were identified as causes of the insecticidal effect of the M. azedarach fruit, of which three would correspond to flavonoids: one catechin and two kaempherols. Finally, the aqueous fruit and leaf extracts of M. azedarach were effective insecticides on D. melanogaster, reaching 90% mortality (125000 mg kg-1) with juvenile leaves and 73.3% (10700 mg kg-1) with green fruit.

Keywords
Chinaberry tree, Meliaceae, phenolic compounds.

 
 es Caracterización física y química del fruto y hoja de Melia azedarach check for this species in other resources para uso en manejo integrado de plagas.
Italo, Chiffelle G.; Amanda, Huerta F. & Diego, Lizana R.

Resumen

Se estudiaron las características físicas, químicas y las propiedades insecticidas del fruto y hojas de melia (Melia azedarach L.) (Meliaceae), árbol introducido con fines ornamentales en Chile. Se evaluaron las propiedades físicas y químicas de dos estados de madurez del fruto, verde y maduro, y de las hojas, juveniles y maduras. Las propiedades insecticidas se evaluaron mediante bioensayos de laboratorio sobre Drosophila melanogaster check for this species in other resources Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae), como insecto modelo. El diámetro del fruto de M. azedarach se situó en el límite inferior con referencia a otros estudios. La harina obtenida del fruto verde tuvo un peso seco promedio inferior al maduro. Las hojas tuvieron pesos secos promedio similares, tanto en el estado juvenil como en el maduro. Los frutos verdes tuvieron un contenido de humedad de 50%, similar a las hojas juveniles (60%) y maduras (57%), pero mayor que los frutos maduros (44%). El análisis químico de los estados de madurez del fruto determinó un aumento leve en el contenido de fibra cruda según aumentaba la madurez. En las hojas hubo una disminución cercana a 60% en la cantidad de lípidos cuando maduran. Además, un análisis de polifenoles, por HPLC-DAD (Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con Detector de Arreglo de Diodos) identificó 14 compuestos como causantes del efecto insecticida del fruto de M. azedarach, de los cuales tres corresponderían a flavonoides: una catequina y dos kaempferoles. Finalmente, los extractos acuosos de hojas y frutos de M. azedarach fueron eficaces como insecticidas sobre D. melanogaster, alcanzando mortalidades de hasta 90% con hojas juveniles (125000 mg kg-1) y 73,3% con frutos verdes (10700 mg kg-1).

Palabras-clave
árbol del paraíso, Meliaceae, compuestos fenólicos.

 
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