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Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research
Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA
ISSN: 0718-5820
EISSN: 0718-5839
Vol. 72, No. 4, 2012, pp. 574-581
Bioline Code: cj12087
Full paper language: English
Document type: Review Article
Document available free of charge

Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 72, No. 4, 2012, pp. 574-581

 en LIGHT QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN FRUIT ORCHARDS: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Bastías, Richard M. & Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca

Abstract

Light quality (sunlight spectrum) management promises to provide a new technological alternative to sustainable production in horticultural crops. However, little information exists about physiological and technological aspects on light quality management in fruit crops. Sunlight composition changes widely in orchard canopies, inducing different plant responses in fruit trees mediated by phytochrome (PHY) and cryptochrome (CRY) activity. High proportion of far-red (FR) in relation to red (R) light increases shoot elongation, while blue (B) light induces shoot dwarfing. Red and ultraviolet (UV) light increases fruit skin anthocyanin synthesis, while FR light shows a negative effect. Red and B light can also alter leaf morpho-physiological traits in fruit trees, such palisade thickness, stomatal aperture, and chlorophyll content. Besides improvement of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) availability, the use of reflective films improves UV and R light proportion, with positive effects on PHY mediated-responses (fruit color, fruit weight, shoot growth), as reported in apple ( Malus domestica check for this species in other resources Borkh.), peach ( Prunus persica check for this species in other resources [L.] Batsch), and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium check for this species in other resources [L.] L.). Colored nets widely alter spectral light composition with effects on plant growth, yield, and quality in apple, kiwifruit ( Actinidia deliciosa check for this species in other resources [A. Chev.] C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson), peach, and blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum check for this species in other resources L.) orchards. Mechanisms of colored nets seem to be associated to photosynthetic and morphogenetic process regulated by PAR availability, R/B light proportion, and CRY activity. Alteration of light quality affects significantly fruit tree plant responses and could be a useful tool for sustainable (e.g. lower use of chemicals and labor-practices) management of yield and quality in modern orchards.

Keywords
Red, far-red and blue light, phytochrome, cryptochrome, photo-morphogenesis, reflective films, colored nets

 
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