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Indian Journal of Cancer
Medknow Publications on behalf of Indian Cancer Society
ISSN: 0019-509X
EISSN: 1998-4774
Vol. 40, No. 1, 2003, pp. 15-22
Bioline Code: cn03002
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Indian Journal of Cancer, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2003, pp. 15-22

 en Review Article - A Survey on Risk Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer
Juneja A, Sehgal A, Mitra AB, Pandey A

Abstract

Carcinoma of the cervix is one of the leading malignancies in the developing countries including India. In view of this health care program might have to be redefined. Most of the data are available from the developed countries, which rely mainly on cytology screening on regular basis. This however may not be feasible in developing countries because of various constraints. Thus alternative approaches are needed based on risk reduction modalities. This article while dealing with the control approaches based on secondary prevention, reviews several risk factors associated with cervical cancer. The various articles were approached through Medline search including cross-references. The important life styles associated with cervical cancer and which are amenable to primary prevention strategies through health education, behavioral interventions, legislative approaches and modifying the health care seeking behavior were identified through the review process. These factors mainly pertain to early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, menstrual hygiene and unprotected sex. Role of male partners has also been delineated in the process of cervical carcinogenesis. These factors are essentially conducive to the transmission of an etiological agent; the high-risk types human papillomaviruses, the more proximal cause in the web of causation. Barrier method of contraception and prophylactic vaccine in future could help to check the transmission of the virus. Role of smoking and oral contraceptives has also been discussed. Till the facilities for mass scale screening are developed in developing countries the primary prevention approaches could certainly help to check the incidence of the disease.

Keywords
Cervical cancer, Cervical neoplasia, Cytology screening, Primary prevention

 
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