Diagnostic value of acetic acid comparing with conventional Pap smear in the detection of colposcopic biopsy-proved CIN|
Hegde, Divya; Shetty, Harish; Shetty, Prasanna K. & Rai, Supriya
Aim: To assess the role of visual inspection with acetic acid as an alternative to Pap smear and in screening program for cervical cancer in low resource settings.
Materials and Methods: A total of 225 women in the reproductive age group attending the Department of Gynecology were enrolled in the study. A Papanicolaou smear and visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid was done. All patients who tested positive on screening then underwent a colposcopy-guided biopsy. The Pap smear of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and above was taken as abnormal. The statistical test used was the chi-square test and results were computed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0.
Results: Out of 225 patients, acetic acid (VIA) was positive in 27 (12%) patients and the Pap smear was abnormal in 26 (11.7%). There were 15 LSIL, 6 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 5 were squamous cell carcinoma. On biopsy, there were 15 mild dysplasia, 2 moderate dysplasia, 4 severe dysplasia, and 3 squamous cancers. The Pap smear had a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 98%, and positive predictive value of 80% and negative predictive value of 97.9%. VIA had a sensitivity of 70.8%, specificity of 95%, and positive predictive value of 62.9% and negative predictive value of 96.5%.
Conclusion: Since diagnostic values of VIA is comparable to Pap smear, and it performs well in detecting a high grade lesion, we conclude that VIA can be used as a screening modality for cervical cancer in low resource settings.
Cervical cancer, low resource settings, Pap smear-colposcopy, visual inspection with acetic acid