As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of energy in crop production will minimise environmental problems and promote sustainable agriculture as an economic production system in Nigeria and else where. The aim of the study was to evaluate energy use and gross margin estimate between sesame ( Sesamum indicum
) production using organic and inorganic fertilisers in North-central Nigeria. A sample of 120 sesame farmers comprising of 60 organic and 60 inorganic fertilisers user-farmers was used. A structured questionnaire was used in data collection. The results show that the total energy input expended in the production of sesame using organic and inorganic fertilisers were 2,377 and 2,960 MJ ha-1
respectively. Diesel and labour energy inputs dominated the total energy inputs for the two systems. The energy outputs obtained were 13,900 and 15,000 MJ, respectively. Renewable energy input utilisation was higher (50%) in organic than in inorganic fertilised farms (24%). Energy efficiency and productivity was higher in organic than inorganic sesame farms by 14 and 13%, respectively. The gross margin earned per hectare by organic fertiliser user- farmers was lower by only 5% than that of inorganic fertiliser farmers; but returns on investments were equal at (US$0.02). Hence, since organic farms were more energy efficient and productive, and returns on investment was equal, it is recommended that sesame production using organic fertiliser should be encouraged across Nasarawa State in Nigeria, for environmental and income sustainability.