The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), the Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), and many national agricultural research systems (NARS) have devoted considerable attention to cassava improvement. However, many biotic constraints still limit the expansion of this crop in many tropical areas. Host-plant resistance and biological control are the cornerstones of crop protection measures against biotic stresses on cassava ( Manihot esculenta
L.). Genetic improvement has focused on African cassava mosaic disease, cassava bacterial blight and anthracnose diseases. Management of the cassava mealybug and the cassava green mite has been highly successful using parasitoids natural enemies introduced from Latin America, the original home of cassava. Sustainable plant health management (PHM) that considers the crop plant as a component of an agro-ecosystem holds promise for management of diseases and pests on cassava.