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African Crop Science Journal
African Crop Science Society
ISSN: 1021-9730
EISSN: 2072-6589
Vol. 3, No. 2, 1995, pp. 209-215
Bioline Code: cs95028
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1995, pp. 209-215

 fr
Nwanze, K.F.; Seetharama, N.; Sharma, H.C. & Stenhouse, J.W.

Résumé

Les pertes annuelles en production de graines attribuees a 4 insectes majeurs (mouches de pousses, foreuses de tiges, midge et headbugs) sont estimees a 1098 millions de dollars en Afrique et en Asie. Les strategies de lutte integree contre les insectes n'ont pas ete bien ciblees. Il y a, par ailleurs, peu d'avenir pour les insecticides a base chimique dans la production du sorgho en Afrique au sud du Sahara. Des methodes culturales et biologiques diverses y compris les configurations d'associations culturales recommendees et le controle biologique n'ont pas ete adoptees par les agriculteurs ou du moins, n'ont pas eu des succees viables. Bienque beaucoup d'efforts aient ete consacres a l'identification et au developement des sorgho resistants aux insectes, les techniques d,amelioration conventionelles n'ont pas donne les produits agronomiquement interessants, a l'exception do sorgho resistant au midge. Plusieurs approches biotechnologiques sont examinees en vue d'atteindre des niveaux eleves de resistance chez le sorgho. La selection faite eu utilisant des marqueurs peut accelerer le processus d 'amelioration et aboutir a l'accumulation de genes provenant de diverses sources. Pour le cas de la resistance aux mouches de pousses, le transfert de genes resistants en provenance de parents sauvages de sorgho peut etre d'une grande utilite. A l'aide des progres recent de genie genetique, l'ICRISAT developpe des protocoles standards a utiliser pour les transformations de routine. Trois de ces techniques sont examinees et les problemes de biosecurite sont brievement analyses.

Mots Clés
ICRISAT, lutte integree, genes marqueurs, selection, resistance

 
 en Biotechnology in Pest Management: Improving Resistance in Sorghum to Insect Pests
Nwanze, K.F.; Seetharama, N.; Sharma, H.C. & Stenhouse, J.W.

Abstract

Annual losses in grain production attributed to four major insect pests (shootfly, stem borers, midge and head bugs) are estimated at $1,098 million in Africa and Asia alone. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for these insects have been poorly focused. There is little scope for chemical insecticides in sorghum production in sub-Saharan Africa. Various cultural and biological methods, including recommended intercropping configurations and biocontrol have either not been adopted by farmers or have not shown lasting success. Although much effort has gone into the identification and development of insect resistant sorghums, apart from sorghum midge, conventional breeding techniques have not yielded agronomically desirable products. Several biotechnological approaches for achieving higher levels of resistance in sorghum are discussed. Marker-assisted selection can speed up the breeding process and lead to gene pyramiding from diverse sources. The transfer of resistance genes from wild relatives of sorghum is of particular relevance to shootfly. With recent advances in genetic engineering, the standardization of protocols for routine transformation is being pursued at ICRISAT. Three techniques are discussed. Biosafety concerns are briefly mentioned.

Keywords
ICRISAT, integrated pest management, marker-genes, selection, resistance

 
© Copyright 1995 - African Crop Science Society

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