Comparative case control study of clinical features and human leukocyte antigen susceptibility between familial and nonfamilial vitiligo|
Misri, Rachita; Khopkar, Uday; Shankarkumar, U. & Ghosh, K.
Background: Various studies worldwide suggest that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region may be involved in the genetic susceptibility of vitiligo but little information is available from India.
Aim: To find the HLA associated susceptibility to develop vitiligo in Indian patients and to detect role of HLA in familial vitiligo.
Methods: This was a case controlled study which included all patients suffering from vitiligo over a period of one and half years. Clinical details were noted and sera collected from these patients were screened for the presence of HLA class I antibodies. The clinical features and HLA antigens were assessed and comparison was made between patients with familial and nonfamilial vitiligo.
Results: Out of 114 patients studied, 84 had family history and 30 had no family history. Patients with family history of vitiligo have higher chances of acquiring vitiligo if first degree relatives are affected compared to if second degree relatives are affected. Family history of vitiligo is associated with an early onset of vitiligo (< 20 years). There was no statistically significant difference in the type, stability, and severity of vitiligo in both the groups. HLA results in both the groups revealed increase in HLA A2, A11, A31, A33, B17, B35, B40, and B44 alleles while HLA A9, B13, and B53 alleles were decreased. Family history was associated with HLA A2, A28, A31, and B44 alleles. Early onset of vitiligo (< 20 years) was significantly associated with HLA A2, A11, B17, B35, and B44 alleles. The patients with severe affection (> 10% area) showed in significant association with HLA A10 and B8.
Conclusion: Family history of vitiligo is associated with an early onset of vitiligo. There is no correlation of family history with the type of vitiligo, stability of lesions, and areas involved. Severity is not associated with family history. Apart from other alleles, alleles A2, and B44 play a significant role in vitiligo in the Indian patients.
Familial vitiligo, HLA alleles