Endophytic microorganisms: a review on insect control and recent advances on tropical plants|
Azevedo, João Lúcio; Maccheroni, Walter Jr.; Pereira, José Odair & de Araújo, Welington Luiz
In the past two decades, a great deal of information on the role of endophytic microorganisms in nature has been collected. The capability of colonizing internal host tissues has made endophytes valuable for agriculture as a tool to improve crop performance. In this review, we addressed the major topics concerning the control of insects-pests by endophytic microorganisms. Several examples of insect control are described, notably those involving the interactions between fungi and grazing grasses from temperate countries. The mechanisms by which endophytic fungi control insect attacks are listed and include toxin production as well as the influence of these compounds on plant and livestock and how their production may be affected by genetic and environmental conditions. The importance of endophytic entomopathogenic fungi for insect control is also addressed. As the literature has shown, there is a lack of information on endophytes from tropical hosts, which are more severely affected by pests and diseases. Having this in mind, we have included an updated and extensive literature in this review, concerning new findings from tropical plants, including the characterization of endophytic fungi and bacteria microbiota from several Amazon trees, citrus and medicinal plants among others.
Biological control, Endophytic bacteria, Endophytic fungi, Insect-pests, Tropical endophytes