Child Mortality and Socioeconomic Status in Sub-Saharan Africa|
Amouzou, Agbessi & Hill, Kenneth
This paper examines under-five mortality (U5MR) trends in sub-Saharan Africa, and the association between socio-economic status -indicated by per capita income, illiteracy, urbanization -and under-five mortality between 1960 and 2000. It shows substantial decline in U5MR in all Sub-Saharan Africa regions between 1970 and 1990. Regional differentials among West, Central and East Africa that existed in the 1960s have largely disappeared by 1990. However, the decline in U5MR appears to have stalled in 1990s and some countries have experienced increases. The analyses show a consistent negative relationship between U5MR and per capita income, but a given income implies lower U5MR as one moves towards the present. There is also a significant positive association between illiteracy and U5MR, and negative association between urbanization and U5MR. However, the effects of urbanization and illiteracy have diminished in the past decade, while the effect of per capita income has increased.