Review Articles- Contribution of genomics, proteomics, and single-nucleotide polymorphism in toxicology research and Indian scenario|
Patel S, Parmar D, Gupta YK, Singh MP
Advancement in the molecular tools used in toxicology has provided immense information about the cellular and global structure and function of toxicant-responsive genes. Now, it has become possible to assess the functional activity of genes and proteins involved in various toxicological pathways, which were not possible with the conventional methods. Many genes are known to have a greater influence on the susceptibility to environmental agents than others; therefore, identification and characterization of polymorphism in such genes for the determination of early, late, or no response of an individual for the toxicant-induced diseases has also become mandatory. Toxicogenomics, a newly born discipline of toxicology, comprises of two major facets, one, how various genes in the genome respond to environmental toxicants and stressors and second, how toxicants modify the function and expression of specific genes in the genome. Toxicogenomics play an important role in the identification and characterization of molecular biomarkers to predict cellular toxicity and to determine the efficacy and exposure in the toxicity trials at an early stage. Genome and proteome-wide expression profiles in combination with conventional toxicology are being used to classify compounds, predict the mechanism of toxicity of newer compounds and determine the susceptibility of an individual for the toxic responses. Single-nucleotide polymorphism in toxicant-responsive genes is being used to obtain basic information of the genetic variation and its role in the functional protein expression. Various national and international government and private organizations have launched several programs on gene-environment interactions. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India, has also launched a program on ′toxicogenomics of genetic polymorphism in Indian population to industrial chemicals for development of biomarkers′ to provide better ventures and facilities to researchers in order to understand the environment-genome interactions. In this review, the contribution of genomics, proteomics, and SNPs in toxicology along with its current status in India has been discussed
Microarray; proteomics; single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); toxicogenomics.