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Indian Journal of Human Genetics
Medknow Publications on behalf of Indian Society of Human Genetics
ISSN: 0971-6866
EISSN: 0971-6866
Vol. 17, No. 1, 2011, pp. 29-32
Bioline Code: hg11008
Full paper language: English
Document type: Case Report
Document available free of charge

Indian Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2011, pp. 29-32

 en MCT oil-based diet reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a patient with very long chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase deficiency
Pervaiz, Muhammad Ali; Kendal, Fran; Hegde, Madhuri & Singh, Rani H.


Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is one of the genetic defects of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation presenting in early infancy or childhood. If undiagnosed and untreated, VLCAD deficiency may be fatal, secondary to cardiac involvement. We assessed the effect of replacing part of the fat in the diet of a 2 1/2-month-old male infant, who was diagnosed with VLCAD deficiency,with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil and essential fats. The patient presented with vomiting, dehydration, and was found to have persistent elevation of liver function tests, hepatomegaly, pericardial and pleural effusion, right bundle branch block, and biventricular hypertrophy. Because of the cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly, and an abnormal acylcarnitine profile and urine organic acids, he was suspected of having VLCAD deficiency. This was confirmed on acyl-coA dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL) gene analysis. He was begun on an MCT oil-based formula with added essential fatty acids, uncooked cornstarch (around 1 year of age), and frequent feeds. By 7 months of age, cardiomyopathy had reversed and by 18 months of age, all cardiac medications were discontinued and hypotonia had improved such that physical therapy was no longer required. At 5 years of age, he is at the 50 th percentile for height and weight along with normal development. Pediatricians need to be aware about the basic pathophysiology of the disease and the rationale behind its treatment as more patients are being diagnosed because of expansion of newborn screen. The use of MCT oil as a medical intervention for treatment of VLCAD deficiency remains controversial mostly because of lack of clear phenotype-genotype correlations, secondary to the genetic heterogeneity of the mutations. Our case demonstrated the medical necessity of MCT oil-based nutritional intervention and the need for the further research for the development of specific guidelines to improve the care of these patients.

Cardiomyopathy, carnitine, inborn error of metabolism, MCT oil, very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

© Copyright 2011 Indian Journal of Human Genetics.
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