Life Events as Risk Factors for Myocardial Infarction: A Pilot Case-control Study in Kolkata, India|
Haldar, Anima; Saha, Subhashis; Mandal, Sankar; Haldar, Santanu; Mundle, Malay & Mitra, S.P.
This case-control study was conducted in the Cardiology Department of Medical College, Kolkata, India, during 2000-2001, to explore the link between stressful life events and subsequent myocardial infarction (MI). One hundred consecutive confirmed MI patients were selected as a case group. One hundred age-, sex- and income-matched controls were selected from visitors other than relatives who attended these patients. The subjects were interviewed and asked to rate 61 life events with a number between 0 and 20. They also noted which of these they had experienced in the last one year. The main exposure variables included life events as per E.S. Paykel, smoking, alcohol consumption, chewing of tobacco, marital status, literacy, employment, and monthly per-capita income. The results showed that an MI patient was likely to experience 4.16 stressful life events, which were twice as much as the control group (2.24). The total stress score was the highest for serious personal illness followed by illness of family members and unemployment for the MI patients. For the controls, conflict between husband and wife, death of friends, and personal illness had the highest total stress score. The mean stress score for the MI patients was 35.5 compared to 17.35 among the controls. The MI subjects were more likely to have experienced stressful life events than the controls.
Myocardial infarction; Life events; Stress: Risk factors; Case-controlled studies; India