Body Mass Index, Waist-circumference and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Iranian Adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program|
Mohammadifard, Noushin; Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam & Alikhasi, Hassan
Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed
to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardiometabolic
risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently
associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed
on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514
randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects
were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and
diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were
determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp,
SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical
activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus
(DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively.
Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and
WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of
BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in
the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However,
in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles.
BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC
is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both
WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared
to BMI or WC alone.
Body mass index; Diabetes mellitus; Dyslipidaemia; Hypertension; Obesity; Risk Factor; Waist-circumference; Iran