The Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition
Vol. 35, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-17
Bioline Code: hn16037
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge
The Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-17
© Copyright 2016 - The Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition
Factors associated with compliance to recommended micronutrients uptake for prevention of anemia during pregnancy in urban, peri-urban, and rural communities in Southeast Nigeria|
Onyeneho, Nkechi G.; I’Aronu, Ngozi; Chukwu, Ngozi; Agbawodikeizu, Uju Patricia; Chalupowski, Malgorzata & Subramanian, S. V.
Background: The study investigated the factors associated with compliance to the recommended ≥90-day uptake
of micronutrients for prevention of iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy in Nigeria.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1500 women who had babies within 6 months prior to the survey, drawn from
six urban, peri-urban, and rural local government areas in Enugu and Imo States of Nigeria, was conducted, using a
structured questionnaire. A focus group discussion was held with grandmothers and fathers of the new baby. In-depth
interviews were held with health workers.
Results: There were six demographic factors in the bivariate analysis: living in an urban center and close to
health facility, and being wealthy, with post-secondary education as well as older and engaged in civil service
showed significant association with compliance. The urban residents complied more than the peri-urban and
rural residents (χ2 = 12.749; p = 0.002). Those living close to the health facilities complied more than those living
far away (χ2 = 24.638; p < 0.001). Those in higher wealth quintile complied more (χ2 = 13.216; p < 0.010). Utilization of
antenatal clinics during pregnancy showed statistically significant association with compliance. Those who used the
ANC services complied more than those that did not (χ2 = 6.324; p = 0.010) and the more frequent the use of ANC
services the more the compliance (χ2 = 14.771; p < 0.001). These results were confirmed when the opinions expressed
in the urban, peri-urban, and rural communities are compared. However, the multivariate binary logistic regression
highlighted only urban residence, closeness to health facilities, and utilization of ANC services as positively associated
Conclusion: These findings could help in targeting health education program to increase compliance to the
recommended uptake of micronutrients in prevention of anemia during pregnancy.
Anemia; Pregnancy; Compliance; Micronutrients
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