Intestinal parasitic infections and HIV/AIDS have been the major public health problems and remain a
vital cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Both problems are linked in a vicious cycle. The
magnitude of intestinal parasites was prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS even in the HAART era.
However, the pertinent risk factors associated with intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients were not well
investigated in Ethiopia particularly at Butajira town. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the
prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira,
A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a total of 323 study subjects was involved in the study. A
systematic random sampling technique was used to select each participant during data collection. Stool specimen
was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique, and modified
Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques to identify both common and opportunistic intestinal parasites. Structured
questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, environmental, clinical, and nutritional data. Both bivariate
and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of various explanatory factors on
intestinal parasites. P
value ≤0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistically significant.
The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 35.9% (95% CI 31.0–40.9%). Protozoa’s ( Entanmoeba histolytica/dispar
trophozoite, E. histolytica/dispar
cyst, Giardia lamblia
trophozoite, and G. lamblia
(Tanea species, Ascaris lumbricoides
, Strongyloid stercoralis
, Hookworm species and H. nana
), and opportunistic
intestinal parasites ( Cryptosporidium parvum
, Isospora belli
) were observed in 57 (17.1%), 46 (14.4%), and 28 (8.7%)
study participants respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of animals (AOR 6.
14; 95% CI 3.13, 12.0); using river water (AOR 4.87; 95% CI 1.14, 20.7); undernutrition (AOR 2.59; 95% CI 1.36–4.95);
and level of immunosuppression (AOR 4.02; 95% CI 1.78–9.05 and AOR 2.84; 95% CI 1.37–5.89) were significantly
associated with intestinal parasites.
The prevalence of intestinal parasites found to be higher among HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART
at Butajira Hospital, southern Ethiopia. Presence of animals, using river water, lower CD4 T cell count, and
undernutrition were significant factors affecting intestinal parasites. Therefore, consistent detection of intestinal
parasites and deworming of patients should be performed as well as improving health education on personal
hygiene, avoiding contact with pit or domestic animals, and using safe or treated water. Furthermore, improving
nutritional support and household food access are recommended.