Rapid and accurate diagnosis is necessary for the management of schistosomiasis in endemic areas.
To assess the burden of urogenital schistosomiasis and the diagnostic efficiency of morbidity indicators of the disease in an endemic rural community of Nigeria.
A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted. Urine samples of 487 pupils were screened microscopically for S. haematobium
and tested for haematuria and proteinuria using chemical reagent strips.
The prevalence and intensity of infection were 57.1% and 45.0 eggs/10 mL urine respectively. Prevalence of infection in male (54.1%) and female (60.3%) individuals showed no significant variation (P>0.05). However, prevalence of infection was age dependent with those in age groups 3-5 and 12-14 years having the least and highest prevalence of infection respectively (P<0.05). Microhaematuria and proteinuria varied significantly with ages of the pupils with least (14.0, 40.0%) and highest (60.0, 80.0%) prevalence recorded in age groups 3-5 and 15-19 years respectively (P<0.05). Proteinuria showed higher sensitivity (80.3%) compared to microhaematuria (73.3%).
Schistosomiasis is highly endemic in the study area and the use of microhaematuria and proteinuria for mapping the infected population prior treatment could be adopted.