Background and Objectives:
Post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are recurring causes of rising morbidity and
mortality in surgeries. This study sought to evaluate pre-operative risk factors for PPCs in abdominal surgerypatients in Nigeria.
This was a prospective study in patients booked for surgery in 2014. Biodata, medical his tory, pre-operative
respiratory and cardiovascular examination findings, body mass index, serum albumin, serum urea, ventilatory function, chest
x-rays and oxygen saturation were obtained. The association between pre-operative variables and PPCs was determined.
The pre-operative spirometry was predominantly restrictive (62%). Overall, the prevalence of PPCs was 52%. This
included non-productive cough (14%), isolated productive cough (10%), productive cough with abnormal chest finding (16%),
pneumonia (8%), pleural effusion (5%), ARDS (2%). Percentage predicted FEV1 and FVC were lower in participants with PPCs.
(p= 0.03 and p=0.01respectively). Pre-operative cough, shortness of breath and consolidation were associated with PPCs (p<0.05). Post-operative respiratory rate and pulse rate in participants with PPCs were higher than the values in those without PPCs
(p=0.03 and p=0.05).
The prevalence of PPCs was high in this study. Pre-operative cough, shortness of breath, consolidation, abnormally low percentage predicted FEV1 and FVC were associated with PPCs.
Cite as: Ufoaroh CU, Ele PU, Anyabolu AE, Enemuo EH, Emegoakor CD, Okoli CC, et al. Pre-operative pulmonary assessment and risk
factors for post-operative pulmonary complications in elective abdominal surgery in Nigeria. Afri Health Sci. 2019;19(1). 1745-1756. https://
dx.doi. org/10.4314/ ahs. v19i1.51