Comparative effects of glibenclamide, metformin and insulin on fetal pancreatic histology and maternal blood glucose in pregnant streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats|
Lawal, Sodiq Kolawole; Adeniji, Adeoluwa Akeem; Sulaiman, Sheu Oluwadare; Akajewole, Mustapha Mas’ud; Buhari, Muhammad Olanrewaju & Osinubi, Abraham Adewale
Background: Oral hypoglycemic agents use during pregnancy was assumed to cause fetal macrosomia and skeletal deformities, and maternal complications due to significant transfer across placenta or ineffective control of blood glucose.
Objective: This study investigated effects of insulin, metformin and glibenclamide on maternal blood glucose; and fetal crown-rump length, gross malformation and pancreatic histology in pregnant streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Methods: Twenty-five pregnant rats of groups 1 to 5 as normal and diabetic controls; and diabetic treated with insulin, metformin and glibenclamide were used. Experimental GDM was induced using 45 and 35mg/Kgbw of intraperitoneal streptozotocin.
Results: Metformin, Insulin and Glibenclamide significantly reduced maternal glucose by 140.6mg/dL, 103.2mg/dL and 98.54mg/dl; respectively and showed islets with regular interlobular ducts, islets with some irregular interlobular ducts, and islets with many irregular interlobular ducts in histological fetal pancreatic photomicrographs respectively. This depicts metformin having highest ameliorative effect. There were no significant differences in maternal and fetal body weights, maternal blood glucose between diabetic groups, and fetal gross examination.
Conclusion: At the doses used in this research, metformin and glibenclamide showed no adverse effects on maternal and fetal features in the treatment of GDM. Thus, they can be used as safe and inexpensive alternatives to insulin.
Gestational diabetes mellitus; oral hypoglycemic agents; blood glucose; fetal malformation and fetal pancreatic histology.