Sex differences and HIV status of tuberculosis in adults at a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia: an 18-year retrospective cross-sectional study|
Ramos, José M; Comeche, Belén; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco; Tiziano, Gebre; Balcha, Seble; Edada, Tamasghen; Biru, Dejene; Pérez-Butragueño, Mario & Górgolas, Miguel
Background. The aim of the study was to compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of
tuberculosis (TB), including HIV status, in women and men in southern rural Ethiopia.
Methods. We conducted a register-based retrospective cohort study covering the period from September 1998 to August
Results. We included records of 2252 registered TB patients: 1080 (48%) women and 1172 (52%) men. Median age was
similar for women and men: 27.5 years and 25.0 years, respectively. Median weight in women was 43.0 kg (interquartile range IQR: 38.0, 49.0), significantly lower than in men (50.0 kg, IQR 44.0, 55.0; p = 0.01). Extrapulmonary TB was significantly
more common in women than in men (34.1% versus 28.7%; p=0.006). Treatment outcomes were similar in both sexes:
in 70.3% of women and 68.9% of men, TB mortality was slightly lower in women than men (4.7% vs. 6.5%; p=0.08). In
patients with TB, female sex was independently associated with low weight (adjusted aOR: 0.91; 95% CI 0.90, 0.92), less mortality (aOR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.36, 0.81), and lymph node TB (aOR: 1.57; 95% CI 1.13, 2.19)
Conclusion. Lymph node TB was more common in women. Treatment outcomes were similar in both sexes, but women
had a lower mortality rate.
Tuberculosis; tuberculosis, lymph node; female; women; sex; gender; Ethiopia.