Socio-demographic predictors of gender inequality among heterosexual couples expecting a child in south-central Uganda|
Vrana-Diaz, Caroline J; Korte, Jeffrey E; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Richey, Lauren; Selassie, Anbesaw; Sweat, Michael; Chemusto, Harriet & Wanyenze, Rhoda
Background: Gender inequality is a pervasive problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and has negative effects on health and development.
Objective: Here, we sought to identify socioeconomic predictors of gender inequality (measured by low decision-making
power and high acceptance of intimate partner violence) within heterosexual couples expecting a child in south-central
Method: We used data from a two-arm cluster randomized controlled HIV self-testing intervention trial conducted in three
antenatal clinics in south-central Uganda among 1,618 enrolled women and 1,198 male partners. Analysis included Cochran
Mantel-Haenzel, proportional odds models, logistic regression, and generalized linear mixed model framework to account
for site-level clustering.
Results: Overall, we found that 31.1% of men had high acceptance of IPV, and 15.9% of women had low decision-making
power. We found religion, education, HIV status, age, and marital status to significantly predict gender equality. Specifically,
we observed lower gender equality among Catholics, those with lower education, those who were married, HIV positive
women, and older women.
Conclusion: By better understanding the prevalence and predictors of gender inequality, this knowledge will allow us to
better target interventions (increasing education, reducing HIV prevalence in women, targeting interventions different religions
and married couples) to decrease inequalities and improve health care delivery to underserved populations in Uganda.
Gender inequality; Pregnancy; HIV/AIDS; Prenatal Care; Uganda.