Opportunistic fungal infections in persons living with advanced HIV disease in Lagos, Nigeria; a 12-year retrospective study|
Oladele, Rita; Ogunsola, Folasade; Akanmu, Alani; Stocking, Katie; Denning, David W & Govender, Nelesh
Introduction: Nigeria has a large estimated burden of AIDS-related mycoses. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients
with AIDS-related opportunistic fungal infections (OFIs) at an urban antiretroviral treatment (ART) centre in Nigeria.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of a cohort of ART-naïve, HIV-infected patients, assessed for ART eligibility and ART-experience
at the PEPFAR outpatient clinic at Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 12-year period (April 2004-February
2016) was conducted.
Results: During this period, 7,034 patients visited the clinic: 4,797 (68.2%) were female; 6161 patients had a recorded baseline
CD4 count, and the median CD4 count was 184 cells/μl (IQR, 84-328). A baseline HIV-1 viral load (VL) was recorded
for 5,908 patients; the median VL was 51,194 RNA copies/ml (IQR, 2,316-283,508) and 6,179/7046(88%) had initiated
ART. Some 2,456 (34.9%) had a documented opportunistic infections, of whom 1,306 (18.6%) had an opportunistic fungal
infection. The total number of OFI episodes was 1,632: oral candidiasis (n=1,473, 90.3%), oesophageal candidiasis (n=118;
8%), superficial mycoses (n=23; 1.6%), Pneumocystis pneumonia (PJP) (n=13; 0.8%), and cryptococcal meningitis(CM)
(n=5; 0.4%). 113 (1.6%) were known to have died in the cohort.
Conclusion: Approximately 1 in 5 HIV-infected patients in this retrospective cohort, most of whom had initiated ART,
were clinically diagnosed with an OFI. Improved access to simple accurate diagnostic tests for CM and PJP should be prioritised
for this setting.
Opportunistic fungal infections; ART Adherence; Advanced HIV disease.