A 12-month prospective study of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome incidence and outcomes at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria|
Ayandipo, Omobolaji O.; Afuwape, Oludolapo O.; Kuti, Modupe A.; Adigun, Tinuola A. & Idowu, Olusola K.
Peritoneal sepsis is a life-threatening emergency, more so in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where immediate hospital presentation for much needed urgent surgical care is the exception rather than the norm. Continued research into the multifactorial aetiopathogenesis responsible for the high level of morbidity and mortality is necessary. We aimed to determine the incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients presenting with generalized peritonitis in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.
We conducted a prospective study involving recruitment of consenting patients managed for generalized peritonitis over 12 months.
Fifty-seven consenting and appropriate patients were recruited over the course of the study and managed as per study protocol. The duration of symptoms ranged between 11 hours and 7 days. All patients had varying degrees of IAH and ACS at presentation with generalized peritonitis. A laparotomy with definitive surgery was done in 51 patients (89%), with 6 patients (11%) having only a bedside peritoneal drain inserted for decompression.
Significant improvement of the respiratory rate (P<0.001), oxygen saturation (P=0.041), and urinary output (P=0.021) only occurred after decompression by laparotomy or tube drainage. The consecutive mean ± standard deviation (SD) intra-abdominal pressures measured, respectively, at presentation, immediately postsurgery, then postoperatively at 6 h, 24 h, and 72 h reflected significant improvement at each point (respectively in cmH2O: 11.4 ± 6.03, 6.58 ± 5.58, 5.78 ± 3.29, 4.73 ± 2.86, 6.72 ± 5.18; P < 0.001).
IAH and ACS are not uncommon in our setting, and ACS at presentation is a significant predictor of mortality in patients with peritoneal sepsis. Surgical decompression invariably leads to an improvement in all clinical variables investigated.
intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; peritonitis; laparotomy; percutaneous catheter decompression; Nigeria