Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata
in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and non-polar extracts of Anaphe venata
larvae were investigated in mice. The sub-acute toxicity study showed an increase in the behavioural components as tremor, jerking and stretching, after the administration of the extracts for 7 days, an indication of Ataxia syndrome. Also, no significant difference in these components occurred between polar and non-polar extracts, an indication of similarity in the chemical composition and level of toxicity. There was a corresponding increase in enzymatic activities coupled with increase in weight of essential organs investigated, but not significantly different from the controls. However, the involvement of receptors and neurotransmitters, in the action of the extracts to cause ataxia syndrome require further investigation.