Coartem has recently replaced chloroquine as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum
malaria due to resistance in many regions worldwide. This study was aimed to compare the effect of chloroquine and coartem on haematological parameters in rats. Thirty (30) albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 2 batches of 15 rats. Each batch was further divided into 3 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 was control, groups 2 and 3 received coartem (1.6mg/100g body weight) and chloroquine (0.875mg/100g body weight) orally and once daily. The feeding regimen lasted for 3 and 7 days for batches 1 and 2 respectively. Complete blood count was done using automatic counter. Results revealed that administration of chloroquine and coartem for 3 days did not significantly altered the levels of RBC, Hb, PCV, total & differential WBC, platelet count and platelet indices, but led to significant reductions in MCV and MCH in chloroquine recipient (60.80 ±0.98fL and 19.14 ±0.31pg) compared with control (68.64 ±2.12fL and 20.80 ±0.60pg; p<0.05) and coartem (68.16 ±1.73fL and 20.36 ±0.14pg; p<0.01) groups respectively. However, administration of these drugs for 7 days caused significant reduction in RBC, Hb and PCV in coartem recipients compared with control (p<0.05) and chloroquine (p<0.01) groups. RDW was also significantly reduced in chloroquine recipients. In conclusion, administration of coartem and chloroquine at their recommended doses and durations would not pose any deleterious effect on haematological parameters in rats.