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Medicina
Croatian Medical Association - Rijeka branch
ISSN: 0025-7729
Vol. 44, No. 2, 2008, pp. 117-122
Bioline Code: me08016
Full paper language: Croatian
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Medicina, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2008, pp. 117-122

 en Bioethics in Latin-America: Some Challenging Questions for the Present and Future
Pessini, Leo

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present some challenging questions which bioethics has to face in the region of Latin America. At it’s beginning in the USA in 1970s bioethics had to deal with new ethical dilemmas created by the fantastic progress of science and technology which generated new discoveries related with human life. Today, the new concepts of death, the beginning of the era of transplantation (kidney, heart and liver), and scandals concerning research on human beings fostered the emergency of the principlism paradigm. When bioethics was founded in Latin America it first followed the bioethical principles which already existed in the USA. Only in the mid-90s has the Latin America started to build its own identity when it began to address some of the key ethical issues related to its own socio-political and cultural reality. We identified five problems: 1) Broadening the ethical reflection from the “micro” to the “macro” level; 2) Accepting the cultural differences between Anglo - Saxon and Latin cultures; 3) The challenge to develop a horizon of meaning for bioethics; 4) Going beyond principles; 5) Consider justice and equity in the health care area as one of it’s key ethical references; and finally 6) To establish a respectful dialogue between bioethics and religious values.

Keywords
bioethics, cultural differences, Latin America

 
 hr Bioetika u Latinskoj Americi: izazovna pitanja za sadašnjost i budućnost
Pessini, Leo


Cilj je ovoga članka predstaviti neka izazovna pitanja s kojima se bioetika danas mora suočavati u nekim regijama Latinske Amerike. U svojim počecima u SAD-u (1970.) bioetika se u osnovi bavila novim etičkim dilemama stvorenim izvanrednim napretkom znanosti i tehnologije koji je doveo do novih otkrića vezanih uz ljudski život. Danas imamo novu predodžbu o smrti, započela je era transplantacije (bubrezi, srce i jetra), i sve je više skandala vezanih uz istraživanja na ljudima, što je potaknulo pojavu paradigme principalizma. Bioetika je u Latinskoj Americi u svojim počecima preuzela bioetička načela SAD-a. Svoj je vlastiti identitet započela graditi tek sredinom 90-ih godina 20. st., kada je počela razmatrati i imenovati neka ključna etička pitanja vezana uz društveno-političku i kulturološku stvarnost Latinske Amerike. Mi smo prepoznali pet problema: 1) širenje etičkog promišljanja s mikrorazine na makrorazinu; 2) uzimanje u obzir kulturološke razlike između anglosaksonskih i latinskih kultura; 3) izazov razvijanja područja značajnih za bioetiku; 4) djelovanje izvan načela; 5) razmatranje pravednosti i jednakosti na području zdravstvene skrbi kao jedne od njezinih ključnih etičkih referenca; 6) utemeljenje uljudnog dijaloga između bioetike i religijskih vrijednosti.


bioetika, kulturološke razlike, Latinska Amerika

 
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