ABSENCE OF Ras, c-myc AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR) MUTATIONS IN HUMAN GLIOMAS AND ITS CLINICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PATHOLOGICAL GRADING AFTER SIX YEARS OF DIAGNOSIS IN NORTH EAST MALAYSIAN PATIENTS|
Mazira Mohammad Ghazali, Mohd Shahril Mohd Zan, Abdul Aziz Yusof, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Hasnan Jaffar, Abdul Rahman Ariff, Win Mar@Slamah, Aini Ideris, Abdul Manaf Ali, Abdul Rahman Omar,Khatijah Yuosff, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Fauziah Othman, Noordin Mohamed Mustapha, Mohd Nizam Isa & Nyi Nyi Naing
Neoplastic transformation appears to be a multi-step process in which the normal controls of cell proliferation and cell-cell interaction are lost, thus transforming normal cells into cancer. The tumorigenic process involves the interplay between oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. In this study, we have selected the ras family, c-myc and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genes to detect whether their abnormalities are associated with the expression and progression of glioma cases in Malay patients. We have used the polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformation polymorphism followed by direct sequencing for the study. For the ras gene family, we screened the point mutations in codons 12 and 61 of the H-, K-, and N- ras gene; for EGFR and c-myc, we analyzed only the exon 1 in glioma samples. In mutational screening analyses of the ras family, c-myc and EGFR gene, there was no mobility shift observed in any tumour analyzed. All patterns of single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) band observed in tumour samples were normal compared to those in normal samples. The DNA sequencing results in all high-grade tumours showed that all base sequences were normal. All 48 patients survived after five years of treatment. In simple logistic regression analysis, variables which were found to be significant were hemiplegia (p=0.047) and response radiotherapy (p=0.003). Hemiplegics were 25 times more likely to have high pathological grade compared to those without. Patients with vascular involvement were 5.5 times more likely to have higher pathological grade. However, these findings were not significant in multivariate analysis. Patients who had radiotherapy were nearly 14 times more likely to have higher pathological grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with hemiplegia were more likely to have higher pathological grade (p= 0.008). Those with higher pathological grading were 80 times more likely to have radiotherapy (p=0.004).
Ras gene, c-myc, EGFR, Gliomas, Malaysia