Malaria is a disease that causes enormous human morbidity and mortality. One feature of mature Plasmodium falciparum
-infected erythrocytes leading to the development of severe malaria is thought to be cytoadherence and blockage of the microvasculature. Therefore, an understanding of mechanisms that mediate parasite adhesion leading to malaria pathology is needed to yield new treatments for malaria. However, to date, cytoadherence-associated pathology is still under debate. Is cytoadherence needed to develop severe malaria? This review will discuss the available information on associations of cytoadherence with the development of severe malaria.