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Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences
School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
ISSN: 1394-195X
Vol. 20, No. 4, 2013, pp. 47-55
Bioline Code: mj13054
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2013, pp. 47-55

 en Drug Utilisation Review of Potassium Chloride Injection Formulations Available in a Private Hospital in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
Melissa, Mohammad Hirman & Azmi, Sarriff


Background: The concentrated potassium chloride injection is a high-alert medication and replacing it with a pre-mixed formulation can reduce the risks associated with its use. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of patients receiving different potassium chloride formulations available at a private institution. The study also assessed the effectiveness and safety of pre-mixed formulations in the correction of hypokalaemia.
Methods: This was a retrospective observational study consisting of 296 cases using concentrated and pre-mixed potassium chloride injections in 2011 in a private hospital in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Results: There were 135 (45.6%) cases that received concentrated potassium chloride, and 161 (54.4%) cases that received pre-mixed formulations. The patients’ clinical characteristics that were significantly related to the utilisation of the different formulations were diagnosis (P < 0.001), potassium serum blood concentration (P < 0.05), and fluid overload risk (P < 0.05). The difference observed for the cases that achieved or maintained normokalaemia was statistically insignificant (P = 0.172). Infusion-related adverse effects were seen more in pre-mixes compared to concentrated formulations (6.8% versus 2.2%, P < 0.05).
Conclusion: This study provides insight into the utilisation of potassium chloride injections at this specific institution. The results support current recommendations to use pre-mixed formulations whenever possible.

potassium chloride; electrolytes; hypokalaemia; drug utilisation evaluation; drug-use review

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