Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells as a Source of Smooth Muscle Cells in the Regeneration of Muscular Layer of Urinary Bladder Wall|
Salem, Salah Abood; Hwei, Angela Ng Min; Saim, Aminuddin; Chee Kong, Christopher Ho; Sagap, Ismail; Singh, Rajesh; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Md Zainuddin, Zulkifili & Hj Idrus, Ruszymah
Background: Adipose tissue provides an abundant source of multipotent cells, which represent a source of cell-based regeneration strategies for urinary bladder smooth muscle repair. Our objective was to confirm that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be differentiated into smooth muscle cells.
Methods: In this study, adipose tissue samples were digested with 0.075% collagenase, and the resulting ADSCs were cultured and expanded in vitro. ADSCs at passage two were differentiated by incubation in smooth muscle inductive media (SMIM) consisting of MCDB I31 medium, 1% FBS, and 100 U/mL heparin for three and six weeks. ADSCs in non-inductive media were used as controls. Characterisation was performed by cell morphology and gene and protein expression.
Result: The differentiated cells became elongated and spindle shaped, and towards the end of six weeks, sporadic cell aggregation appeared that is typical of smooth muscle cell culture. Smooth muscle markers (i.e. alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA), calponin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC)) were used to study gene expression. Expression of these genes was detected by PCR after three and six weeks of differentiation. At the protein expression level, ASMA, MHC, and smoothelin were expressed after six weeks of differentiation. However, only ASMA and smoothelin were expressed after three weeks of differentiation.
Conclusion: Adipose tissue provides a possible source of smooth muscle precursor cells that possess the potential capability of smooth muscle differentiation. This represents a promising alternative for urinary bladder smooth muscle repair.
adipose; stem cells; muscle cells; regeneration; bladder wall