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Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences
School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
ISSN: 1394-195X
Vol. 20, No. 5, 2013, pp. 5-15
Bioline Code: mj13066
Full paper language: English
Document type: Review Article
Document available free of charge

Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2013, pp. 5-15

 en Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Neurofeedback: Implementations and Applications
Dewiputri, Wan Ilma & Auer, Tibor


Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn how to volitionally influence the neuronal activation in the brain by employing real-time neural activity as feedback. NFB has already been performed with electroencephalography (EEG) since the 1970s. Functional MRI (fMRI), offering a higher spatial resolution, has further increased the spatial specificity. In this paper, we briefly outline the general principles behind NFB, the implementation of fMRI-NFB studies, the feasibility of fMRI-NFB, and the application of NFB as a supplementary therapy tool.

fMRI; learning; neurofeedback; self-regulation

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