The Study of Apoptosis-inducing Effects of Three Pre-apoptotic Factors by Gallic Acid, Using Simulation Analysis and the Comet Assay Technique on the Prostatic Cancer Cell Line PC3|
Saffari-Chaleshtori, Javad; Heidari-Sureshjani, Ehsan; Moradi, Fahimeh; Jazi, Hojjatollah Molavian & Heidarian, Esfandiar
Background: In this study, we demonstrated the effects of the Gallic Acid (GA) molecule
on the prostate cancer cells line PC3 using the comet assay (Alkaline electrophoresis) technique
and its effects on some important apoptotic factors including BAD (Bcl-2-Associated Death
promoter), BAK (Bcl-2 homologous Antagonist/Killer), and BIM (Bcl-2-like protein 11) via
simulation analysis by using the Auto Dock and Gromacs software.
Methods: Following the MTT assay on the PC3 cells, and determining IC50, we used
three concentrations of GA to around IC50 to treat PC3 cells. 100 comet pictures were obtained
by alkaline electrophoresis and have been analysed with the CASP version 1.2.2 software; all the
results were thereafter analysed by the SPSS version 21 statistical software.
Results: The IC50 value for GA was determined to be 35 μM. The ratio of tail to head in
alkaline electrophoresis for the three concentrations below the IC50 of GA in 25, 30, and 35 μM
were measured as 24.7 (2.7), 44.5 (1.8), and 57.3 (1.3) percent, respectively. The results of the preapoptotic
factors (BAD, BAK, and BIM) in the performed simulation in the absence and presence of
GA showed that the GA protein causes the structural instability in the BAD protein, and the effect of
GA can be explained by the creation of hydrogen bonds with proteins.
Conclusion: GA is a polyphenol compound in plants that can suppress cell growth and
induce apoptosis in PC3 cells in prostate cancer in the range of IC50 concentrations. The apoptotic
properties of GA induce pre-apoptotic factors.
simulation; apoptosis; gallic acid