Pre-Hospital Factors Influencing Time of Arrival at Emergency Departments for Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction|
Lim, See Choo; Rahman, Andey & Yaacob, Najib Majdi
Background: Pre-hospital delay is currently a major factor limiting early reperfusion
among ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients worldwide. This study aims to
determine pre-hospital factors affecting symptom-to-door time among STEMI patients in Malaysia.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included 222 STEMI patients admitted to two tertiary
hospitals in Malaysia. By determining symptom-to-door time, the study population was categorised
into two definitive treatment seeking groups: early (≤ 3 h) and delayed (> 3 h). Data was collected focusing on socio-demographical data, risk factors and comorbidities, clinical presentation, situational factors and action taken by patients.
Results: The mean age of our patients was 58.0 (SD = 11.9) years old, and the population
consisted of 186 (83.8%) males and 36 (16.2%) females. Our study found that the median symptom-to-door time was 130.5 (IQR 240) min, with 64% of subjects arriving early and 36% arriving late. Pre-hospital delays were found to be significant among females (adj OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.02, 5.76; P = 0.046), patients with recurrence of similar clinical presentations (adj OR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.37, 5.46; P = 0.004), patients experiencing atypical symptoms (adj OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.11, 6.31; P = 0.029) and patients who chose to have their first medical contact (FMC) for their symptoms with a general practitioner (adj OR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.20, 6.56; P = 0.018). However, patients with hyperlipidaemia (adj OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93; P = 0.030), self-perceived cardiac symptoms (adj OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.73; P = 0.005) and symptoms that began in public places (adj OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.69; P = 0.010) tended to seek treatment earlier.
Conclusion: The symptom-to-door time among the Malaysian population is shorter in
comparison to other developing countries. Nevertheless, identified, modifiable pre-hospital factors can be addressed to further shorten symptom-to-door time among STEMI patients.
emergency medicine; pre-hospital delay; ST-elevation myocardial infarction; symptom-to-door time; factors