Malawi Medical Journal
College of Medicine, University of Malawi and Medical Association of Malawi
Vol. 27, No. 3, 2015, pp. 88-92
Bioline Code: mm15023
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge
Malawi Medical Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2015, pp. 88-92
© Copyright 2015 - Malawi Medical Journal
Environmental risk factors for oesophageal cancer in Malawi: A case-control study|
Mlombe, Y.B.; Rosenberg, N.E.; Wolf, L.L.; Dzamalala, C.P.; Chalulu, K.; Chisi, J.; Shaheen, N.J.; Hosseinipour, M.C. & Shores, C.G.
There is a high burden of oesophageal cancer in Malawi with dismal
outcomes. It is not known whether environmental factors are associated
with oesophageal cancer. Without knowing this critical information,
prevention interventions are not possible. The purpose of this analysis
was to explore environmental factors associated with oesophageal cancer
in the Malawian context.
A hospital-based case-control study of the association between
environmental risk factors and oesophageal cancer was conducted at
Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi and Queen Elizabeth
Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Ninety-six persons with squamous
cell carcinoma and 180 controls were enrolled and analyzed. These two
groups were compared for a range of environmental risk factors, using
logistic regression models. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95%
confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
Firewood cooking, cigarette smoking, and use of white maize flour all had
strong associations with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, with
adjusted odds ratios of 12.6 (95% CI: 4.2-37.7), 5.4 (95% CI: 2.0-15.2) and
6.6 (95% CI: 2.3-19.3), respectively.
Several modifiable risk factors were found to be strongly associated with
squamous cell carcinoma. Research is needed to confirm these associations
and then determine how to intervene on these modifiable risk factors in
the Malawian context.
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