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African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Rural Outreach Program
ISSN: 1684-5358
EISSN: 1684-5374
Vol. 13, No. 1, 2013, pp. 7105-7121
Bioline Code: nd13003
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2013, pp. 7105-7121

 en EFFECT OF PRE-PROCESSING ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MORAMA BEAN ( TYLOSEMA ESCULENTUM check for this species in other resources ) MILK
Mpotokwane, S.; Tlhong, T.; Mthombeni, F.; Gaditlhatlhelwe, E.; Phokoje, O. & Jackson, JC.

Abstract

Morama bean ( Tylosema esculentum check for this species in other resources ) is an indigenous bean of the Kalahari region of Botswana. It has high nutritional content and is believed to also contain high levels of phytonutrients. The bean is traditionally eaten roasted as a snack but there is increasing emphasis to develop other innovative high value morama products, while maintaining its healthful properties. The effect of pre-processing treatments including salt-water-blanching, sodium-bicarbonate-blanching, hot-water-blanching on the proximate composition, total solids non-fat, colour, viscosity, sediments, pH and titratable acidity of morama milk was assessed. Consumer preference of the morama milk was also studied, using a soymilk control. Milk extracts were stored at 4°C for up to 24 hours and analyses conducted using standard methods. The findings indicated that the pre-processing treatments produced significant differences (p <0.05) in protein (1.50 ± 0.18g/100g) and carbohydrate (1.09 ± 0.94g/100g) composition of the baking soda blanched milk sample. The viscosity of the baking soda blanched milk (18.91 ± 3.38cps) was significantly higher than that of the other milk samples, while the sediments of the salt water blanched milk (14.01 ± 1.63%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the others. Baking soda blanching resulted in the highest pH (7.31 ± 0.32) and lowest titratable acidity levels (0.45 ± 0.24). The hot water blanched and baking soda blanched samples were slightly darker in colour, while the baking soda blanched sample had more greenness and less yellowness characteristics than the other two samples. Baking soda blanched pre-treated morama milk was the preferred morama milk by over 85% of the consumers; they also preferred it over soymilk. This is the first reported study on the processing of morama beans into milk and it demonstrated that it was possible to process high quality and acceptable morama milk, which can be utilized as a supplement to the dairy industry.

Keywords
morama, milk, physico-chemical, sensory, nutrition

 
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