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African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Rural Outreach Program
ISSN: 1684-5358
EISSN: 1684-5374
Vol. 20, No. 5, 2020, pp. 16420-16446
Bioline Code: nd20082
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2020, pp. 16420-16446

 en ASSESSMENT OF AFLATOXIN AND FUMONISIN CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN MAIZE AND MYCOTOXINS AWARENESS AND RISK FACTORS IN RWANDA
Niyibituronsa, M; Mukantwali, C; Nzamwita, M; Hagenimana, G; Niyoyita, S; Niyonshima, A; Hakizimana, C; Ndilu, L; Nyirahanganyamunsi, G; Nkurunziza, E; Sendegeya, P; Niyonteze, G; Muhutu, JC; Shingiro, JB; Umuhire, J; Nyirahorana, C; Ingabire, AC; Nyiranshuti, A; Sibomana, E; Usabyembabazi, M; Munganyinka, E; Gasana, AP; Kamaraba, I; Izamuhaye, JC; Nkundanyirazo, E; Ngaboyisonga, C; Bucagu, C & Karangwa, P

Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that are toxic to humans and animals when consumed in contaminated food and feed. The Rwandan climate conditions like steady temperature and sufficient rainfall favor the growth of fungi leading to high probability of mycotoxins contamination. Mycotoxins get into maize throughout the value chain from the field to processed products. Maize is promoted in Rwanda under the Crop Intensification Program (CIP), for nutrition and food security. The aim of the study was to evaluate mycotoxins (Aflatoxin and fumonisin) levels in maize and assess awareness and factors associated with mycotoxin contamination in Rwanda. Maize samples (227 kg) from season B 2019 were collected in 15 Districts in five provinces of Rwanda after an interview with a representative of the household or cooperative using a structured questionnaire. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxin and fumonisin using Reveal Q+ and AccuScan Gold Reader. From the interview, most of the respondents were not aware about aflatoxin (59.7 %) and 99 % did not know the effect of mycotoxins on human health. The average of aflatoxin contamination in surveyed districts was 6.69±13 μg/kg. In general, 90.4 % of samples scored below the limit of aflatoxin level regulated in East Africa/Kenya regulation standards (10 μg/kg). The levels of aflatoxin ranged between 0 and 100.9 μg/kg. The means aflatoxin levels within districts ranged between 1.36±0.5 μg/kg and 13.75±25 μg/kg. Among 9.6 % of the samples containing aflatoxins above the EU and Kenyan regulations standard limit, 5.7 % were above the US standards of 20 μg/kg. Within clusters, the level of aflatoxin more than 10 μg/kg was 5 %, 7 % and 18 % for stores, household and market samples, respectively. From the study, as mechanical damage of grains, moisture content of grains and the temperature of the store house increased, Aflatoxin level also increased. Fumonisin analyzed in maize ranged from 0 to 2.3 μg/g and only one sample from market showed a slightly higher level of fumonisin than the EU and US limit of 2 μg/g. More effort for aflatoxin mitigation is needed at the market level. Farmers need to be aware and taught how they can improve their agricultural system and more knowledge on mycotoxin control is needed. The results point to appropriate measures to recommend for control of mycotoxins in Rwanda and awareness creation.

Keywords
AccuScan; Aflatoxin; Fumonisin; Fungal; Maize; Mycotoxins; Reveal Q+; Rwanda

 
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