Brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: The role of inflammation|
Zhang Xiangjian, Li Haiyan, Hu Shuchao, Zhang Liying, Liu Chunyan, Zhu Chunhua, Liu Ruichun, Li Chunyan
Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in secondary brain edema and injury that may lead to death and disability. ICH also causes inflammation. It is unclear whether inflammation contributes to brain edema and neuron injury or functions in repairing the brain tissue.
Aims: To understand the effect of inflammation in ICH, we have carried out an investigation on the various aspects and the dynamic changes of inflammation.
Settings and Design: An ICH model was generated by injecting 50 ml autologous tail artery blood stereotactically into the right caudate nucleus of 30 rats, which were randomly divided into five ICH groups. Similarly, five Sham control groups were generated by inserting the needle to the right caudate nucleus of rats.
Materials and Methods: Rat behavior was evaluated over the time course (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d) in each group. The rats were then killed by administering an overdose of pentobarbital. Following the euthanasia, the brain water content, neuronal loss, glia proliferation, inflammatory infiltration and brain morphology of the rats were measured. Additionally, the expression of TNF-α,IL-6, ICAM-1, VEGF, NF-κB, C3 and CR2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by student′s t test.
Results: Rat brain water content increased progressively over the time course and reached its peak at 48h followed ICH. The maximum of inflammatory infiltrate (especially neutrophils) and immunopositive cells of TNF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB, were at 48h. The expression of C3 and CR2 reached their peaks at 48-72h, while the expression ICAM-1 and VEGF were at maximum at 72h followed ICH.
Conclusions: The results suggested that the inflammatory cytokines, complement system and VEGF may have a function in the development of the brain edema and neuron injury followed ICH.
Animal models, brain edema, inflammation, intracerebral hemorrhage