Cryptococcal meningitis: Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic overviews|
Satishchandra, P; Mathew, T.; Gadre, G.; Nagarathna, S.; Chandramukhi, A.; Mahadevan, A. & Shankar, S.K.
Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS. Among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive subjects, cryptococcal meningitis is the second most common cause of opportunistic neuro-infection. Current trends are changing due to the marked improvement of quality and length of life produced by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The introduction of generic HAART in India has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals getting treatment for HIV infection, as the cost of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has decreased 20- fold. Cryptococcal meningitis occurs in non-HIV patients who are immunodeficient due to diabetes, cancer, solid organ transplants, chemotherapeutic drugs, hematological malignancies etc and rarely in healthy individuals with no obvious predisposing factors. Diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis is fairly straightforward once the diagnosis is considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic meningitis. Treatment of a patient with cryptococcal infection is a challenge for both the physician and the patient, but rewarding, as many would recover with timely and adequate antifungal therapy.
Meningitis, Cryptococcal, HIV, immunodeficiency