Predictors of mortality in rhinocerebral mycosis|
Jayalakshmi, Sita S.; Reddy, Ramana G.; Borgohain, Rupam; Subramanyam, C.; Panigrahi, Manas; Sundaram, C.; Meena, A. K. & Mohandas, S.
Introduction: Rhinocerebral mycosis is a rapidly progressive fatal opportunistic infection, predominantly affecting people in an immunocompromised state. Aggressive surgical therapy, with repeated debridement in combination with intravenous amphotericin B can lead to a high rate of cure.
Aim: To determine the predictors of mortality in rhinocerebral mycosis.
Materials and Methods: The demographic data, clinical features, radiological (MRI/CT) findings, treatment details of patients with a diagnosis of rhinocerebral mycosis confirmed on histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome was assessed as alive and dead. Univariate analysis with odds ratio (OR) was employed in data analysis. Chi-square test was used for P value.
Results: There were 38 patients. The age range was 7-82 (mean 48.68) years; 30 (79%) were males. Craniofacial pain was the most common initial presenting symptom, noted in 29 (76.3%). Rhino-orbital involvement was noted in 24 (63.2%) and 12 (31.6%) had associated focal neurological deficits. Immunocompromised state was noted in 24 (63.2%). Eighteen (47.4%) patients died. The predictors for mortality: odds ratio (95% CI) were 2.45 (1.01-3.89) for elderly age, 5.67 (4.13-7.21) for intracranial extension, 2.6 (1.26-3.94) for immunocompromised state, 2.62 (1.25-3.99) for infection with zygomycosis and 2.33 (1.01-3.65) for anemia.
Conclusion: Rhinocerebral mycosis is associated with high mortality in spite of aggressive therapy. Intracranial extension with focal neurological deficits is a major predictor of mortality in rhinocerebral mycosis.
Intracranial extension, mortality, rhinocerebral mycosis