Prevalence of low dietary calcium intake in patients with epilepsy: A study from South India|
Menon, Bindu; Harinarayan, Chittari Venkata; Raj, Marella Neelima; Vemuri, Swapna; Himabindu, G. & Afsana, T. K.
Background: The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AED) on bone health are well documented. Inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D plays a vital role and further compromises the bone health.
Objective: To assess the dietary pattern with special reference to calcium and related minerals in people with epilepsy (PWE) on AED.
Materials and Methods: The dietary assessment in PWE was documented by dietary recall method. Patients were categorized according to age: group I: < 14 years; group II: between 15-20 years; group III: between 21-45 years; group IV:> 46 years. From the raw weights, total energy, dietary calcium, dietary phosphorous intake and phytate calcium ratio was calculated using a food composition table by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and analyzed statistically.
Results: A total of 362 patients with mean age of 29 + 15 years were studied. There were 190 women. The mean duration of AED treatment was 4 + 3 yrs, 64% on monotherapy 64% and 36% on polytherapy. The mean dietary intake of the total chohort was 2,007 + 211 Kcal/day, carbohydrate 335 + 33 gm/day; protein 31 + 7 gm/day; fat 18+2 gm/day; calcium 294 + 40 mg/day; phosphorus 557 + 102; phytates 179 + 30 mg/day; and phytate/calcium ratio 0.56+0.2. Milk and milk products were consumed by 42% of the total cohort. The daily dietary calcium (301 + 40 mg/day) intake of men was significantly higher than women (287 + 39 mg/day) (P < 0.001). This was more evident in group II (P < 0.01) and group III (P < 0.03). There was a positive correlation between dietary calcium and dietary phytates (P < 0.001), dietary proteins (P < 0.001), dietary fat (P < 0.001), and total energy (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: The dietary consumption of calcium of all the patients was far below the recommended daily dietary allowance (RDA) by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Low dietary calcium could have a confounding effect on PWE on AED in all age groups. There is a need to formulate consensus guidelines to supplement dietary calcium to PWE.
Diet, calcium, epilepsy