A Review of the Ticks (Acari, Ixodida) of Brazil, Their Hosts and Geographic Distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil|
DE Evans; JR Martins & AA Guglielmone
A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida) of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12) of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry), Ixodes loricatus (opossums), Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs), A. calcaratum (anteaters), A. cooperi (capybaras), A. nodosum (anteaters), A. tigrinum (dogs) (Neotropical) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs) (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical) were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle) (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental). Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations) (Neotropical), Ixodes affinis (deer) (Nearctic/Neotropical) and I. auritulus (birds) (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian) are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean) are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses)(Nearctic/Neotropical), but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic) (Nearctic/Neotropical) and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle) (Neotropical) in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic"), Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus) that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens), as both long established and possibly newly locally introduced species in the state, that should be considered as potential and emergent pests and pathogen vectors to humans and their more recently acquired, introduced domestic animal hosts; rural poultry, dogs and horses.
tick species, Ixodida, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil