Mast cells and eosinophils actively participate in tissue repair and are prominent components of Schistosoma mansoni
granulomas. Since pentoxifillyne (PTX) is an immunomodulatory and antifibrotic substance, we aimed to characterize, by morphological techniques, the effect of this drug on fibrosis developed inside murine hepatic schistosomal granulomatous reaction, beyond the quantification of eosinophil and mast cell populations. The drug (1 mg/100 g animal weight) was administrated from 35 to 90 days post-infection, when the animals were killed. The intragranulomatous interstitial collagen network was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the number of eosinophils and mast cells was quantified and the results were validated by t-student test. Treatment did not interfere on the granuloma evolution but caused a significant decrease in the total and involutive number of hepatic granulomas (p = 0.01 and 0.001, respectivelly), and in the intragranulomatous accumulation of eosinophils (p = 0.0001). Otherwise, the number of mast cells was not significantly altered (p = 0.9); however, it was positively correlated with the number of granulomatous structures (r = 0.955). In conclusion, PTX does not affect development and collagen deposition in S. mansoni murine granuloma, but decreases the intragranulomatous eosinophil accumulation possibly due to its immunomodulatory capability, interfering in cellular recruitment and/or differentiation.