Domiciliated Rhodnius prolixus
and sylvatic R. colombiensis
were analyzed in order to confirm their genetic divergence and verify the risk that the latter represents in the domiciliation process, and to provide tools for identifying the sources of possible reinfestation by triatomines in human dwellings allowing control programs to be undertaken. Comparison of random amplified polymorphic DNA amplification patterns and cluster analysis suggests reproductive discontinuity between the two species. The calculated statistical F value of 0.24 and effective migration rate of 0.6 individuals per generation are insufficient to maintain genetic homogeneity between them and confirm the absence of present genetic flow. R. colombiensis
presents higher intrapopulation variability. Polymerase chain reaction of ribosomal DNA supports these findings. The low genetic flow between the two species implies that R. colombiensis
do not represent an epidemiological risk for the domiciliary transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Tolima Department. The lower variability of the domiciliated R. prolixus
could result in greater susceptibility to the use of pesticides in control programs.