Toro Toro (T) and Yungas (Y) have been described as genetically well differentiated populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis
(Lutz & Neiva, 1912) complex in Bolivia. Here we use geometric morphometrics to compare samples from these populations and new populations (Bolivia and Nicaragua), representing distant geographical origins, qualitative morphological variation ("one-spot" or "two-spots" phenotypes), ecologically distinct traits (peridomestic and silvatic populations), and possibly different epidemiological roles (transmitting or nor transmitting Leishmania chagasi). The Nicaragua (N) (Somotillo) sample was "one-spot" phenotype and a possible peridomestic vector. The Bolivian sample of the Y was also "one-spot" phenotype and a demonstrated peridomestic vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The three remaining samples were silvatic, 'two-spots' phenotypes. Two of them (Uyuni and T) were collected in the highlands of Bolivian where VL never has been reported. The last one (Robore, R) came from the lowlands of Bolivia, where human cases of VL are sporadically reported. The decomposition of metric variation into size and shape by geometric morphometric techniques suggests the existence of two groups (N/Y/R, and U/T). Several arguments indicate that such subdivision of Lu. longipalpis could correspond to different evolutionary units.