A survey on Plasmodium
infection was carried out in gold mine camps located in the Brazilian Amazon. Antibody against P. falciparum
ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) was quantified by an enzyme-immunoassay in order to assess P. falciparum
exposure. Hepatitis B, a common infection in this area, was also investigated by serologic markers. Among 520 sampled subjects, 517 (99.4%) admitted previous symptomatic malaria, 106 (20.4%) had positive thick smears for malaria, 82.9% had HBV markers, and 7.1% were HBsAg positive. Anti-RESA titers was significantly lower in HBV carriers than in people with resolved HBV infection suggesting that the anti-RESA immune response could be supressed by HBV carrier status. Moreover, immunedeficient responses to both infections may take place in some subjects causing concomitant lower anti-RESA response and incapacity to clear HBV.