The use of in situ techniques to detect DNA and RNA sequences has proven to be an invaluable technique with paraffin-embedded tissue. Advances in non-radioactive detection systems have further made these procedures shorter and safer. We report the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi
, the causative agent of Chagas disease, via indirect and direct in situ polymerace chain reaction within paraffin-embedded murine cardiac tissue sections. The presence of three T. cruzi
specific DNA sequences were evaluated: a 122 base pair (bp) sequence localized within the minicircle network, a 188 bp satellite nuclear repetitive sequence and a 177 bp sequence that codes for a flagellar protein. In situ hybridization alone was sensitive enough to detect all three T. cruzi specific DNA sequences.