Hepatitis B and C in the Hemodialysis Unit of Tocantins, Brazil: Serological and Molecular Profiles|
Karla P Souza; Jônio A Luz; Sheila A Teles; Megmar AS Carneiro; Luciana A Oliveira; Adriane S Gomes; Márcia A Dias; Selma A Gomes; Clara FT Yoshida & Regina MB Martins
A survey was conducted in the hemodialysis population of the state of Tocantins, Brazil, aiming to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to analyze associated risk factors, and also to investigate these viruses genotypes distribution. During January and March 2001, all patients (n = 100) were interviewed at the unique dialysis unit in Tocantins. Blood samples were collected and serum samples were screened for HBV serological markers. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive samples were tested for HBV DNA. All samples were also tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA. An overall prevalence of 45% was found for HBV infection (4% were HBsAg/anti-HBc positive, 2% were anti-HBc only and 39% had anti-HBc/anti-HBs markers). Concerning HCV infection, anti-HCV and HCV RNA were detected in 13% and 14% of the subjects, respectively. Three patients were HCV RNA positive and anti-HCV negative, resulting in an overall HCV prevalence of 16%. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that only shift and length of time on hemodialysis were associated with HBV and HCV positivity, respectively. Among the four HBsAg-positive samples, HBV DNA was detected in three of them, which were identified as genotype A by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. All 14 HCV RNA-positive samples were genotyped by INNO-LiPA. Genotypes 1a and 3a were found in 85% and 15%, respectively. The present data show low HBsAg and HCV prevalence rates. The risk factors associated with HBV and HCV positivity suggest that nosocomial transmission may influence in spreading these viruses in the dialysis unit studied.
hepatitis B virus - hepatitis C virus - hemodialysis - prevalence - risk factors - genotypes - Tocantins - Brazil