The larva, pupa, male, and female of Simulium bifenestratum
n. sp. are described and illustrated. The pupae of the new species have 10 gill filaments, thick at their base and arranged in a three-dimensional way, surrounding the head and thorax. Its pupal cocoon is peculiar, not found in any of the known Brazilian black-fly species; it is very thick and hard with two openings in the anterior region. S. bifenestratum
n. sp. was collected in one stream in the Bocaina mountain chain, Atlantic forest, in São José do Barreiro county, state of São Paulo, in a high (1500 m) natural grassland. Larvae and pupae were collected on the edges of small waterfalls and in places with-high speed laminar water flow, attached to the bedrock.